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APA 7th Ed. Help: References Page

Library guide to support APA 7th edition.

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Reference Page Citations

APA 7th ed. reference citation essentials from the American Psychological Association. 

APA 7th ed. reference citation information from the Purdue University Online Writing Lab (OWL) often referred to as Purdue OWL. 

Specific author details and source types: 

Reference Page Citations: Summary Of Notable APA 7th ed. Changes

The number in parentheses indicates the corresponding chapter or section(s) in the APA Publication Manual. 


  • Label the reference list "References" in bold font. (2.12)
  • For government agencies, list the most specific agency as the author in the reference. (9.11)
  • Publisher location (city, state) is no longer included in book citations. (9.29)
  • Always include a DOI when available for journal articles and books (electronic and print). (9.3)
  • If a DOI is not available for a journal article from a library database (research database) treat the article as if it were a print version. A URL for the journal website is no longer needed, and you do not need to provide a database name (EBSCOhost, CINAHL, Films on Demand). (9.3 & 9.34)
  • Present both DOIs and URLs as hyperlinks (active website links). Include "http://" or "https://" and for DOIs use the preferred format of: (9.35)
  • For the majority of online sources, such as websites: Include URL (web address) at the end of reference; do NOT include "Retrieved from". However, if the content is likely to change over time, include a retrieval date to indicate to readers that the version they link to may be different (e.g. Retrieved March 11, from (9.16, 10.1 & 10.16)
  • For ebooks, the format, platform, or device (e.g. Kindle) is not included in the reference citation. (10.2)

Adapted from content created by Julie Chapman, Northeast Wisconsin Technical College; and Rae Jeffers & Laura Haygood, University of Texas, Arlington

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