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APA 7th Ed. Help: References Page

Library guide to support APA 7th edition.

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Reference Page Citations: Summary Of Notable APA 7th ed. Changes

The number in parentheses indicates the corresponding chapter or section(s) in the APA Publication Manual. 


  • Label the reference list "References" in bold font. (2.12)
  • For government agencies, list the most specific agency as the author in the reference. (9.11)
  • Publisher location (city, state) is no longer included in book citations. (9.29)
  • Always include a DOI when available for journal articles and books (electronic and print). (9.3)
  • If a DOI is not available for a journal article from a library database (research database) treat the article as if it were a print version. A URL for the journal website is no longer needed, and you do not need to provide a database name (EBSCOhost, CINAHL, Films on Demand). (9.3 & 9.34)
  • Present both DOIs and URLs as hyperlinks (active website links). Include "http://" or "https://" and for DOIs use the preferred format of: (9.35)
  • For the majority of online sources, such as websites: Include URL (web address) at the end of reference; do NOT include "Retrieved from". However, if the content is likely to change over time, include a retrieval date to indicate to readers that the version they link to may be different (e.g. Retrieved March 11, from (9.16, 10.1 & 10.16)
  • For ebooks, the format, platform, or device (e.g. Kindle) is not included in the reference citation. (10.2)

Adapted from content created by Julie Chapman, Northeast Wisconsin Technical College; and Rae Jeffers & Laura Haygood, University of Texas, Arlington