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Use this link to access the in-depth tutorial Academic Writer Tutorial: Basics of Seventh Edition APA Style that covers all of the elements of APA style including formatting, in-text citations, and reference citations. Recorded webinars from the APA on in-text citations and references citations are also available through this link.
Reference Page Citations: Summary Of Notable APA 7th ed. Changes
The number in parentheses indicates the corresponding chapter or section(s) in the APA Publication Manual.
Label the reference list "References" in bold font. (2.12)
For government agencies, list the most specific agency as the author in the reference. (9.11)
Publisher location (city, state) is no longer included in book citations. (9.29)
Always include a DOI when available for journal articles and books (electronic and print). (9.3)
If a DOI is not available for a journal article from a library database (research database) treat the article as if it were a print version. A URL for the journal website is no longer needed, and you do not need to provide a database name (EBSCOhost, CINAHL, Films on Demand). (9.3 & 9.34)
Present both DOIs and URLs as hyperlinks (active website links). Include "http://" or "https://" and for DOIs use the preferred format of: https://doi.org/xxxx (9.35)
For the majority of online sources, such as websites: Include URL (web address) at the end of reference; do NOT include "Retrieved from". However, if the content is likely to change over time, include a retrieval date to indicate to readers that the version they link to may be different (e.g. Retrieved March 11, from https://xxx.xxx). (9.16, 10.1 & 10.16)
For ebooks, the format, platform, or device (e.g. Kindle) is not included in the reference citation. (10.2)
Adapted from content created by Julie Chapman, Northeast Wisconsin Technical College; and Rae Jeffers & Laura Haygood, University of Texas, Arlington